ENDOVASCULAR REPAIR OF ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM (EVAR)
This shows to be one of the two main forms of treatment of aortic aneurysms. Some teams of large centers are using this technique, also called as endoprosthesis implantation, for treating the aneurysms of thoracic and abdominal aortas.
TRANSCATHETER TRANSFEMORAL AORTIC VALVE IMPLANTATION – (TAVI TRANSFEMORAL)
In the transfemoral route, the whole procedure is performed by the groin, with the valve being implanted by catheters, which navigate inside the arterial system, from the femoral artery to the heart. The diseased valve is dilated by a balloon and the prosthesis is implanted. The procedure is less invasive than the conventional surgery.
TRANSCATHETER AORTIC VALVE IMPLANTATION (TAVI – TRANSAPICAL)
The transapical route is exceptionally used when the femoral access is improper. A small incision is made on the left side of the thorax, below the nipple. The valve system with catheter is directly introduced in the heart by the tip of the left ventricle, so dilating the valve and releasing the prosthesis over the diseased valve and alleviating the obstruction.
CLOSURE OF PATENT FORAMEN OVALE (PFO) AND ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT (ASD)
When an intervention is indicated, the defects are corrected by surgery. In such surgery, the IAC can be closed directly or by the placement of a pericardial patch from an ox or the patient himself/herself (in large defects). The IVC usually require the use of patches for their closure.